Nepal trekking, tours and travel operator guide agency nepal
Nepal trekking mountain, Nepal Interesting Places, Pokhara, Chitwan, Daman Tours
Nepal sherpa guide, hiking around nepal, sightseeing nepal, rafting, mountain biking, bungy jumping, paragliding, mountaineering in nepal
About Nepal

Religion
we are pleased to inform international world that Nepal is the Melting pot of Hinduism & Buddhism The two major religions practiced in Nepal are Hinduism and Buddhism with a majority of the people being Hindus. The two have co-existed through the ages and many Hindu idols are found within Buddhist shrines. Hindus visit Buddhist shrines and Buddhists visit Hindu temples without a second thought as many worship in both. Some gods and goddesses are shared by Hinduism and Buddhism although they have been given different names.

Nepal FlagNepal was declared a secular country by Parliament on 18th May 2006. The other religions practiced in Nepal are: Islam, Christianity, Jainism, Sikhism and Bon. Some of the earliest inhabitants like the Kirants practice their own kind of religion based on ancestor worship and the Tharus practice animism. Over the years, Hinduism and Buddhism have been influenced by these practices which have been modified to form a synthesis of newer beliefs.



Most of the festivals celebrated in Nepal have religious significance. The dates of most festivals are fixed by senior astrologers after consulting the lunar calendar. The biggest and most popular festivals are: Dashain, a celebration of Goddess Bhagabati's victory over evil Mahisashur; and Tihar, a celebration of lights dedicated to Goddess Laxmi. Other important religious festivals celebrated by various communities are: Machhendranath Jatra, Indra Jatra, Lhosar, Maghi, Chhat, Christmas, Id and many more.

Nepal has several ancient pilgrimage sites. Each temple is attached to a legend or belief that glorifies the miraculous powers of its deity. Kathmandu Valley is home to the famous PashupatinathTemple, Swoyambhunath Stupa and several other well-known temples. There are hundreds of temples in and around the Kathmandu Valley and some fabulously designed stupas.

Some well-known pilgrimage sites are: Barah Chhetra, Halesi Mahadev, Janaki Temple, Pathibhara, Tengboche in East Nepal; Manokamana in Gorkha district, Lumbini, Muktinath, Gosainkunda, Tansen, Pashupatinath, Swoyanbhunath and Boudhanath in Kathmandu Valley in Central Nepal; and Sworgadwari, Khaptad Ashram in West Nepal. Muktinath in the Annapurna region and Gosainkunda in the Langtang region are well-known pilgrimage sites that fall along popular trekking routes.

Nepal is also the gateway to Mt. Kailash, the mythical abode of Lord Shiva and the holy Mansarovar nearby. There are churches, mosques and gurudwaras located in different parts of the country.
The most prominent are the two mosques located at Durbar Marg.Pashupatinath, dedicated to Lord Shiva, is the holiest Hindu destination in Nepal.
Swoyambhunath is believed to have been established more than 2,500 years ago.
Janaki Temple dedicated to Janaki (Sita in Ramayana).


History


Royal FamilyNepali Histroy which is recorded is centered on the Kathmandu valley and begins with the Kirantis who are said to have ruled for many centuries beginning from the 7th or 8th Century B.C. with their famous King Yalumber who is even mentioned in the epic, ‘Mahabharata’. The Gopalas who were herdsmen are believed to have ruled before the Kirantis but little is known about them. Their descendants are said to still live at the edge of the valley. Around 300 A.D. the Lichavis arrived from northern India and overthrew the Kirantis. The descendants of the Kirantis are the Rais and Limbus who predominate in eastern Nepal. One of the legacies of the Lichavis is the fabulous Changu Narayan temple near Bhaktapur which dates back to the 5th Century. In early 7th Century, Amshuvarman, the first Thakuri king took over the throne from his father-in-law who was a Lichavi. He married off his daughter Bhrikuti to the famous Tibetan King Tsong Tsen Gampo thus establishing good relations with that country. Bhrikuti went on to convert the king to Buddhism. The Lichavis brought art and architecture to the valley but the Golden age of creativity arrived with the Mallas who came to power around 1200 A.D..

During their 550 year rule, the Mallas built an amazing number of temples and splendid palaces with picturesque squares that are lined with architecturally beautiful temples. It was also during their rule that society and the cities became well organized; religious festivals were introduced and literature, music and art were encouraged. Sadly after the death of Yaksha Malla, the valley was divided into three kingdoms: Kathmandu (Kantipur), Bhaktapur (Bhadgaon) and Patan (Lalitpur). The rivalry among these kingdoms led to the building of grand palaces and the uplifting of the arts and culture. Around this time, the Nepal as we know it today was divided into about 46 independent principalities. One among these was the kingdom of Gorkha with a Shah king in power. Much of Kathmandu valley’s history around this time was recorded by Capuchin friars who lived here on their way in and out of Tibet.

An ambitious Gorkha King named Prithvi Narayan Shah embarked on a conquering mission that led to the defeat of all the kingdoms in the valley (including Kirtipur which was an independent state) by 1769. Instead of annexing the newly acquired states to his kingdom of Gorkha, Prithvi Narayan decided to move his capital to Kathmandu establishing the Shah dynasty which ruled unified Nepal from 1769 to 2008 when the last Shah ruler, Gyanendra relinquished his power to make way for total democracy under the rule of a Prime Minister. The history of the Gorkha state goes back to 1559 when Dravya Shah established a kingdom in an area chiefly inhabited by Magars. At this time the Kathmandu valley was ruled by the Malla kings. During the 17th and early 18thcenturies, Gorkha continued a slow expansion, conquering various states while forging alliances with others. Prithvi Narayan dedicated himself at an early age to the conquest of the Kathmandu valley. Recognizing the threat of the British Raj in India, he dismissed European missionaries from the country and for more than a century, Nepal remained in isolation.

During the mid-19th century Jung Bahadur Rana became Nepal's first prime minister to wield absolute power relegating the Shah king to a mere figurehead. He started a hereditary reign of the Ranas that lasted for 104 years during which time the Shah kings had no real power. The Ranas were overthrown in a democracy movement of the early 1950s with support from an unlikely person, the monarch of Nepal, King Tribhuvan. Soon after the overthrow of the Ranas, King Tribhuvan was reinstated as the head of the state. In early 1959, Tribhuvan's son King Mahendra issued a new constitution, and the first democratic elections for a national assembly were held. The Nepali Congress Party was victorious and their leader, Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala formed a government and served as prime minister. But by 1960, King Mahendra had changed his mind and dissolved Parliament, dismissing the first democratic government.

After many years of struggle when the political parties were banned, they finally mustered enough courage to start a People's Movement in 1990. With the public rising up against absolute monarchy and demanding democracy, King Birendra accepted constitutional reforms and established a multiparty parliament with himself as head of state and a Prime Minister heading the government. In May 1991, Nepal held its first parliamentary elections. In February 1996, one of the Maoist parties went underground to wage a ruthless people's war against monarchy and the elected government. Then on 1st June 2001, a horrific tragedy wiped out the royal family along with many of their close relatives. The massacre was blamed on the Crown prince Dipendra who is said to have killed them all single-handedly and eventually shot himself in the head. With only King Birendra’s brother, Gyanendra and his family surviving, he was crowned the king. King Gyanendra tolerated the elected government for only a short while and then dismissed Parliament to grab absolute power. In April 2006, strikes and street protests in Kathmandu led to a 19-day curfew and the political parties joined forces with the Maoist rebels to bring pressure on the errant monarch. Eventually, King Gyanendra realized it was futile holding on to power and relented. He agreed to reinstate parliament. But the political parties and a majority of the general public had had enough of dynastic rule and their abuse of power. On 28th May 2008, a newly elected Constituent Assembly declared Nepal a Federal Democratic Republic, abolishing the 240 year-old monarchy. Nepal today has a President as Head of State and a Prime Minister heading the Government.


Nature


Covering an area of 147,181 sq.km, Nepal shares a border with India in the west, south and east and with the Tibetan Autonomous Region of China in the north. Kanchan Kalan in Jhapa district is the lowest point at 70m above sea level and the summit of Mt. Everest at 8,848 m is the highest. From east to west, Nepal is 800 km long and only 230 km. north to south at its widest. Within this narrow stretch of land there is incredible diversity in topography ranging from a sub-tropical climate in the tarai (plains) to Alpine conditions in the Himalayan regions. Mountains, mid hills, valleys, lakes and plains dominate the landscape of this landlocked country. Eight of the fourteen peaks over eight thousand meters lie in Nepal including Everest, the highest in the world.

Nepal also has an abundance of rivers most of which originate in the Himalaya while some flow down from Tibet. They all flow on to India, many of them joining the holy Ganges. High amid the mountains there are glacial lakes and spectacular valleys where few people venture. Recent physiographic data show that around 4.27 million hectares (29 % of total land area) is made up of forests, 1.56 million hectares (10.6%) of scrubland and degraded forest, 1.7 million hectares
(12%) of grassland, 3.0 million hectares (21%) of farmland and 1.0 million hectares (7%) of un-cultivated land.

Climatic conditions within Nepal vary from one place to another in accordance with the geographical features. In the north, summers are cool and winters severe, while in the south summers are sub-tropical and winters mild. The monsoon that brings rain from June through September affects most of the country except those that lie in the rain-shadow areas like Mustang which is within Nepal but a part of the Tibetan plateau. Large tracts of forested land have been preserved as national parks and wildlife reserves where endangered species like the Royal Bengal tiger and the Greater one-horned rhinoceros roam freely along with an amazing variety of mammals and reptiles that include bear, leopards, hyenas, wild boar, wild elephants, monitor lizards, crocodiles, pythons, turtles and various species of insects and birds. Nepal is home to almost 10 percent of the world's bird species among which 500 species are found in the Kathmandu valley alone.

The most abundant natural resource in Nepal is water. Much of the rivers have been harnessed for hydro-power but they also play a crucial role in tourism as most of them are suitable for adventure sports like kayaking and rafting.

The Himalayas are not merely a source of revenue through mountaineering and trekking, they are also mined for quartz, lignite, copper, cobalt and iron ore. The scenic beauty of the countryside attracts hordes of trekkers while there seems to be an ever increasing number of mountaineers attempting to climb the hundreds of peaks that have been opened for climbing.


Culture


Culture NepalAccording to the Central Bureau of Statistics, the total population of Nepal was 26,427,99 in 2007. The population comprises people of more than 100 multiple ethnic groups who speak about 93 different languages and dialects which are further divided into different castes. The distinction in caste still plays a significant part in a Nepali’ life when it comes to marriage.

Some of the main ethnic groups are: Gurungs and Magars who live mainly in the western region; Rais, Limbus and Sunwars who live in the eastern middle hills; Sherpas, Manangbas and Lopas who live near the mountains of Everest, Annapurna and Mustang respectively; Newars who live in and around the Kathmandu valley; Tharus, Yadavas, Satar, Rajvanshis and Dhimals who live in the Tarai region; and Brahmins, Chhetris and Thakuris generally spread over all parts of the country.

Nepali is the official language of the state, spoken and understood by almost all the people of Nepal. English is spoken by many in government and business offices. It is the mode of education in most private schools of Kathmandu and some other cities

Foreign Currency and Credit Cards

Payment in hotels, travel agencies, and airlines are made in foreign exchange. Credit cards like American Express, Master and Visa are widely accepted at major hotels, shops, and restaurants. Remember to keep your Foreign Exchange Encashment Receipt while making foreign exchange payments or transferring foreign currency into Nepalese rupees. The receipts may be needed to change left-over Nepalese Rupees into hard currency before leaving the country. However, only 10 percent of the total amount may be converted by the bank. ATM is widely in use in Kathmandu.
Major banks, hotels, and the exchange counters at Tribhuvan Airport provide services for exchanging foreign currency.
Exchange rates are published in English dailies such as The Rising Nepal, The Kathmandu Post and The Himalayan Times. Nepalese Rupees are found in denominations of 1000, 500, 100, 50, 20, 10, 5, 2 and 1. Coins are found in denominations of 10, 25 and 50 paisa. One rupee equals 100 paisa.


Nepal Visa Information


Entry Procedures & Visa Rules
Gratis visa for all tourists who visit Nepal for 3 days or less.
Gratis visa for tourists of SAARC countries and People's Republic of China.
Visa Fee:
Single entry - US$ 30 days for 60 days
Multiple entry - US$ 50 + US$ 30.
Visa will be extended subsequently for 30 days each upon payment of US$ 30 for a maximum period of 150 days in a visa year (Jan-Dec). Visa can be obtained either on arrival in Nepal or from Nepalese Embassy or Consulate or other Mission offices abroad. Two passport size photographs required. Indians do not require visa to visit Nepal. However, they require to be in possession of any one of the following documents while travelling between the two countries.
Valid national passport
Photo identity card issued by the government of India/any State Government or Union Territory/Administration in India/Identity Cards issued by the Election Commission of India. (Except Tatkal Identity Cards issued by the Ministry of Railways).
Children between 10-18 years age group are allowed to travel by air on the strength of a passport or photo identity card issued by the Principal of their school or college.
Emergency Certificate issued by Embassy of India, Kathmandu to Indian nationals in case of emergent conditions.
Children up to the age of 10 years will not require the above-mentioned documents for travelling between India and Nepal, by air.


Climate and Weather in Nepal


Nepal's weather is generally predictable and pleasant. There are four climatic seasons:
March to May (spring)
June to August (summer),
September to November (autumn)
December to February (winter)
Culture NepalThe monsoon is approximately from the end of June to the middle of September. About 80% of the rain falls during that period, so the remainder of the year is dry. Spring and autumn are the most pleasant seasons; winter temperatures drop to freezing with a high level of snowfall in the mountains. Summer and late spring temperatures range from 28ºC (83ºF) in the hill regions to more than 40ºC (104ºF) in the Terai. In winter, average maximum and minimum temperatures in the Terai range from a brisk 7ºC (45ºF) to a mild 23ºC (74ºF). The central valleys experience a minimum temperature often falling bellow freezing point and a chilly 12ºC (54ºF) maximum. Much colder temperatures prevail at higher elevations. The Kathmandu Valley, at an altitude of 1,310m (4,297ft), has a mild climate, ranging from 19-27ºC (67-81ºF) in summer, and 2-20ºC (36-68ºF) in winter
Culture Nepal

Tibet tour operator, tibet tour guide, tibet trekking areas, interesting places in tibet
Bhutan tours and travel operator, guide, agency
Annapurna, everst, langtang, kanchenjung, makalu, dhaulagiri treking operator, agency, agent, guide
Tour nepal, travel nepal, nepal tour and travel packages, trekking packages, trekking itenerary nepal
Nepal travel tour and trekking operator, guide, company, agency, trekking operator nepal, travel guide nepal, tour guide nepal
Nepal trekking agency, nepal trekking company, nepal trekking guide, tibet trekking company, tibet tour operator